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University of Maryland Medical Center a jiní dbají na výživu pacienta během léčby

27. 5. 2011


The University of Maryland Medical Center treats more than 250,000 patients a year.
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cituji z / cited from:

Leukemia is a type of cancer in which the body produces large numbers of abnormal (usually white) blood cells. About 28,500 new cases of leukemia are diagnosed each year. There are several types of leukemia, grouped as either acute (the diseases progresses rapidly) or chronic (the diseases progresses slowly). The most common leukemias are:

•Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), which comprises 90% of all leukemias in children (although it also occurs in adults)
•Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), which mostly occurs in adults
•Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which mostly strikes adults over age 55
•Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), which mostly occurs in adults
Signs and Symptoms:
Signs and symptoms of leukemia include:

•Abnormal paleness
•Weight loss
•Shortness of breath
•Easily bruising
•Repeated infections
•Bone pain
•Abdominal pain
What Causes It?:
Most causes of leukemia are not known. However, the disease has been linked to exposure to large amounts of high-energy radiation (from nuclear bombs), occupational exposure to the chemical benzene, viral infections, and chemicals from cigarettes.

Who's Most At Risk?:
Leukemia is linked to the following risk factors:

•Increasing age
•Genetic diseases, such as Fanconi's anemia or Down syndrome
•Acquired diseases, such as Hodgkin's disease
•First-degree relative with leukemia
•Excessive exposure to ionizing radiation
•Chemical exposure (benzene)
•Certain drugs
•Chromosomal abnormalities
•Cigarette smoking
What to Expect at Your Provider's Office:
If you or your child has symptoms associated with leukemia, see your health care provider. Your health care provider can make a diagnosis and help you determine which treatment or combination of therapies will work best.

Your health care provider will do a physical examination, checking for swelling in the liver, the spleen, and the lymph nodes, and will order certain laboratory tests. The bone marrow is examined for leukemia cells or to determine the type of leukemia. A lumbar puncture ("spinal tap") checks for leukemia cells in the fluid around the brain and spinal cord. Chest x-rays can reveal signs of the disease in the chest.

Treatment Options:
Some leukemias can be prevented by avoiding exposure to benzene, nicotine, or radiation.

Treatment Plan
Leukemia is an extremely complex disease. Treatment depends on the type of leukemia, certain features of the leukemic cells, the extent of the disease, and whether the leukemia has been treated before. Whenever possible, a patient with leukemia should be treated at a medical center that specializes in this disease.

Drug Therapies
Some of the drug therapies used to treat leukemia include the following:

•Radiation therapy -- the use of high energy rays to kill cancer cells and prevent them from growing
•Chemotherapy -- the use of drugs to kill cancer cells
•Bone marrow transplantation -- a procedure in which cancerous bone marrow is destroyed with high doses of anticancer drugs or radiation, and is then replaced with healthy bone marrow.
•Biological therapy -- stimulates or restores ability of the body's immune system to fight infection and disease. May also help lessen side effects caused by other treatments
Surgical and Other Procedures
Surgeries may include:

•Lumbar puncture
•Bone marrow transplant
•Splenectomy (removal of the spleen)
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
A comprehensive treatment plan for leukemia may include a range of complementary and alternative therapies. Individuals should educate themselves and keep all medical providers fully informed regarding any and all therapies they are using, both prescribed drugs and dietary supplements.

Nutrition and Supplements
Following these nutritional tips may help reduce symptoms:

•Try to eliminate potential food allergens, including dairy (milk, cheese, butter), wheat (gluten), corn, soy, preservatives, and food additives. Your health care provider may want to test for food sensitivities.
•Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes) and vegetables (such as kale, spinach, and bell peppers).
•Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
•Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy), or beans for protein.
•Use healthy oils in cooking, such as olive oil or vegetable oil.
•Reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids, found in such commercially baked goods as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
•Avoid coffee and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco.
•Drink 6 - 8 glasses of filtered water daily.
•Exercise lightly, if possible, 5 days a week.
You may address nutritional deficiencies with the following supplements:

•A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins and trace minerals, such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium.
•Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus), 5 - 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day, for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. Some probiotic supplements may need refrigeration. Check the label carefully.
•Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 - 2 capsules or 1 tbsp. of oil one to two times daily, to help decrease inflammation. Fish oils may increase bleeding in sensitive individuals, such as those taking blood thinning mediations (including aspirin).
•Vitamin C, 500 - 1,000 mg one to two times daily, as an antioxidant. Higher dosages may be necessary. Talk to your health care provider.
•L-theanine, 200 mg one to three times daily, for nervous system support.
Herbs are generally a safe way to strengthen and tone the body's systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to get your problem diagnosed before starting any treatment.

You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, you should make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 - 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 - 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 - 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures alone or in combination as noted.

•Green tea (Camellia sinensis) standardized extract, 250 - 500 mg daily, for antioxidant, anticancer and immune effects. Use caffeine-free products. You may also prepare teas from the leaf of this herb.
•Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) standardized extract, 150 - 300 mg two to three times daily, for anticancer and immune effects. You may also take a tincture of this mushroom extract, 30 - 60 drops two to three times a day.
•Olive leaf (Olea europaea) standardized extract, 250 - 500 mg one to three times daily, for anticancer and immune effects.
•Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seed standardized extract, 80 - 160 mg two to three times daily, for detoxification support.
Although few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic therapies, professional homeopaths may consider the following remedies for the treatment of gastritis symptoms (such as nausea and vomiting) based on their knowledge and experience. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account your constitutional type -- your physical, emotional, and psychological makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate treatment for you individually.

Homeopathy may help reduce symptoms and strengthen overall constitution and may help decrease the side effects of chemotherapy.

•Radium bromatum is specific for radiation poisoning, especially followed by arthritic complaints. Acute dose is three to five pellets of 12X to 30C every 1 - 4 hours until symptoms are relieved.
Acupuncture may alleviate symptoms. Acupuncture may help to enhance immune function, normalize digestion, and address disease conditions. For many patients and physicians, acupuncture has become one of the most widely used alternative interventions in cancer therapy support.

Prognosis/Possible Complications:
Repeated infections complicate most cases of leukemia. Kidney failure or impaired function and a decreasing number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) are also common complications. Treatments for leukemia can have serious side effects.

The prognosis for people with leukemia varies by the type of leukemia. ALL patients have the best prognosis, with a 35 - 45% 5-year survival rate and a 40% long-term survival rate.

Following Up:
Patients with leukemia undergo extensive follow-up care, including daily exams to check for infections and bleeding, weekly bone marrow biopsies after chemotherapy has begun, post-remission chemotherapy, treatment for central nervous system conditions, and monitoring of urinary function.

•Reviewed last on: 5/9/2008
•Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by Ernest B. Hawkins, MS, BSPharm, RPh, Health Education Resources.
Supporting Research
Benchimol EI, Mack DR. Probiotics in relapsing and chronic diarrhea. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004;26(8):515-7.

Boros LG, Nichelatti M, Schoenfeld Y. Fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1051:529-42.

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Gimenez R. Beneficial effects of green tea -- a review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(2):79-99.

Cheng TO. Can green tea protect against not only sunburn but also melanoma? Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119(12):1056.

Das M, Sur P, Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Ganguly DK. Inhibition of tumor growth and inflammation by consumption of tea. Phytother Res. 2002;16 Suppl 1:S40-4.

Dorchies OM, Wagner S, Vuadens O, et al. Green tea extract and its major polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate improve muscle function in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290(2):C616-25.

Eschenauer G, Sweet BV. Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of theanine. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63(1):26, 28-30.

Hollender A, Bjoro T, Otto Karlsen K, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in patients operated on for gastric lymphoma. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006;41(6):673-81.

Jiang J, Slivova V, Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by down-regulation of estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling. Int J Oncol. 2006;29(3):695-703.

Kelemen LE, Cerhan JR, Lim U, et al. Vegetables, fruit, and antioxidant-related nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1401-10.

Kormosh N, Laktionov K, Antoshechkina M. Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Phytother Res. 2006;20(5):424-5.

Laviano A, Muscaritoli M, Rossi-Fanelli F. Phase II study of high-dose fish oil capsules for patients with cancer-related cachexia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. Cancer. 2005;103(3):651-2.

MacLean CH, Newberry SJ, Mojica WA, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cancer risk: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006;295(4):403-15.

McCarty MF, Block KI. Toward a core nutraceutical program for cancer management. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5(2):150-71.

Miller MF, Bellizzi KM, Sufian M, et al. Dietary supplement use in individuals living with cancer and other chronic conditions: a population-based study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(3):483-94.

Polesel J, Talamini R, Montella M, et al. Linoleic acid, vitamin D and other nutrient intakes in the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an Italian case-control study. Ann Oncol. 2006;17(4):713-8.

Wan XS, Ware JH, Zhou Z, Donahe JJ, et al. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;64(5):1475-81.

Wang HK. The therapeutic potential of flavonoids. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000;9(9):2103-19.

Velicer CM, Ulrich CM. Vitamin and mineral supplement use among US adults after cancer diagnosis: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2008 1;26(4):665-73.




Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas, an organ that produces several enzymes to aid in the digestion of food, as well as the hormone insulin, which controls the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The pancreas is located in the upper abdomen, behind the stomach. When the pancreas is inflamed, the body is not able to absorb all the nutrients it needs.

Pancreatitis may be either acute (sudden and severe) or chronic. Both types of pancreatitis can cause bleeding and tissue death in or around the pancreas. Mild attacks of acute pancreatitis can get better on their own, or by changing your diet. In the case of recurring pancreatitis, however, long-term damage to the pancreas is common, sometimes leading to malnutrition and diabetes.

Necrotizing pancreatitis (in which pancreatic tissue dies) can lead to cyst-like pockets and abscesses. Because of the location of the pancreas, inflammation spreads easily. In severe cases, fluid containing toxins and enzymes leaks from the pancreas through the abdomen. This can damage blood vessels and lead to internal bleeding, which may be life threatening.

Signs and Symptoms:
Common signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include the following:

•Mild-to-severe, ongoing, sharp pain in the upper abdomen that may radiate to back or chest
•Nausea and vomiting
•Abdominal tenderness
•Rapid heart rate
•Rapid breathing
•Oily stools (chronic pancreatitis)
What Causes It?:
There are several possible causes of pancreatitis. The most common are gallstones, which block the duct of the pancreas (for acute pancreatitis), and excessive alcohol consumption (for chronic pancreatitis).

•Certain drugs, including azathioprine, sulfonamides, corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and antibiotics such as tetracycline
•Infection with mumps, hepatitis virus, rubella, Epstein-Barr virus (the cause of mononucleosis), and cytomegalovirus
•Abnormalities in the structure of the pancreas or the pancreatic or bile ducts, including pancreatic cancer
•High levels of triglycerides (fats) in the blood
•Surgery to the abdomen, heart, or lungs that temporarily cuts off blood supply to the pancreas, damaging tissue
•Hereditary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis
•Injury to the abdomen
Who's Most At Risk?:
People with these conditions or characteristics have a higher risk for pancreatitis:

•Biliary tract disease
•Binge alcohol use and chronic alcoholism
•Recent surgery
•Family history of high triglycerides
•Age (most common ages 35 - 64)
African-Americans are at higher risk than Caucasians and Native Americans.

What to Expect at Your Provider's Office:
Your health care provider will examine you for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. Your health care provider may also perform blood tests, take x-rays, and use ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, and other procedures to determine the severity of your condition and decide which treatment options are most appropriate. In the case of chronic pancreatitis, your doctor may test your stool for excess fat (which your body, lacking the enzymes produced by the pancreas, is not able to absorb) and may order pancreatic function tests to check whether your pancreas can secrete the necessary enzymes.

Treatment Options:
Treatment Plan
Acute pancreatitis may require you to be admitted to the hospital, where you will receive medication for pain. You will also fast, to allow the pancreas to rest and stabilize. You will receive intravenous fluids and nutrition (parenteral nutrition). If you have gallstones, your doctor may recommend surgery or other procedures to remove them.

People with chronic pancreatitis may require treatment for alcohol addiction, if that is the cause. Treatment also includes pain management, enzyme supplements, and dietary changes. Treatment for patients who have pancreatitis due to high triglyceride levels includes weight loss, exercise, eating a low-fat diet, controlling blood sugar (if you have diabetes), and avoiding alcohol and medications that can raise triglycerides, such as thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers.

Drug Therapies
You may be given painkillers. Antibiotics may be given to treat or prevent infection in some cases. Enzyme supplements, such as pancrelipase (Lipram, Pancrease, Viokase), may be prescribed to help your body absorb food better.

Surgical and Other Procedures
Different types of surgical procedures may be necessary, depending on the cause of the pancreatitis. With infected pancreatic necrosis (tissue death), surgery is virtually always required to remove damaged and infected tissue. Surgery may also be required to drain an abscess. For chronic pancreatitis with pain that won't respond to treatment, a section of the pancreas may need to be removed. If the pancreatitis is a result of gallstones, a procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be necessary. In ERCP, a specialist inserts a tube-like instrument through the mouth and down into the duodenum to access the pancreatic and biliary ducts.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies
It is important to get conventional medical treatment for pancreatitis as soon as possible. A severe attack can be life-threatening if left untreated. Most alternative therapies have not yet been studied for use specifically in pancreatitis, although some evidence indicates that antioxidants may have beneficial effects. Several therapies, though, may reduce the risk of developing pancreatitis or ease some of the symptoms when used in conjunction with conventional care. You should never treat pancreatitis without your doctor's supervision.

Numerous studies have explored the role of oxidative stress in pancreatitis. Oxidative stress results from the production of free radicals, which are by-products of metabolism that are harmful to cells in the body. Antioxidants help rid the body of harmful free radicals. Low antioxidant levels in the blood (including reduced amounts of vitamins A, C, and E; selenium; and carotenoids) may lead to chronic pancreatitis due to the destructive effects of increased free radicals. Antioxidant deficiency and the risk of developing pancreatitis may be particularly linked in areas of the world with low dietary intake of antioxidants. In addition, the cooking and processing of foods may destroy antioxidants. Alcohol-induced pancreatitis is linked to low levels of antioxidants as well. There is also some evidence that antioxidant supplements may eliminate or minimize oxidative stress and help alleviate pain from chronic pancreatitis.

Nutrition and Supplements
People who are susceptible to pancreatitis should avoid any alcohol consumption.

Some evidence suggests that increasing your intake of antioxidants (found in fruits and green vegetables) may help protect against pancreatitis or alleviate symptoms of the condition. Several studies have explored the role of free radicals, which are by-products of metabolism that are harmful to cells in the body, in pancreatitis. Antioxidants are often recommended to help rid the body of free radicals, and low levels of antioxidants in the blood may make someone more likely to develop pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced pancreatitis is linked to low levels of antioxidants as well.

Following these nutritional tips may help reduce risks and symptoms:

•Eliminate all suspected food allergens, including dairy (milk, cheese, eggs, and ice cream), wheat (gluten), soy, corn, preservatives, and chemical food additives. Your health care provider may want to test you for food allergies.
•Eat foods high in B-vitamins and iron, such as whole grains (if no allergy), dark leafy greens (such as spinach and kale), and sea vegetables.
•Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes), and vegetables (such as squash and bell pepper).
•Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
•Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy) or beans for protein.
•Use healthy oils for cooking, such as olive oil or vegetable oil.
•Reduce significantly or eliminate trans-fatty acids, found in commercially baked goods such as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
•Avoid coffee and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco.
•Drink 6 - 8 glasses of filtered water daily.
•Exercise moderately for 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week.
You may address nutritional deficiencies with the following supplements:

•A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, D, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc and selenium.
•Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 - 2 capsules or 1 - 2 tablespoonfuls oil daily, to help decrease inflammation and improve immunity.
•Coenzyme Q10, 100 - 200 mg at bedtime, for antioxidant and immune activity.
•Vitamin C, 1 - 6 gm daily, as an antioxidant. Vitamin C may interfere with vitamin B12, so take doses at least 2 hours apart. Lower the dose if diarrhea develops.
•Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and other beneficial bacteria), 5 - 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day, for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. Some probiotic supplements may need refrigeration.
•Alpha-lipoic acid, 25 - 50 mg twice daily, for antioxidant support.
•Resveratrol (from red wine), 50 - 200 mg daily, for antioxidant effects.
Herbs are generally available as standardized, dried extracts (pills, capsules, or tablets), teas, or tinctures/liquid extracts (alcohol extraction, unless otherwise noted). Mix liquid extracts with favorite beverage. Dose for teas is 1 - 2 heaping teaspoonfuls/cup water steeped for 10 - 15 minutes (roots need longer). Although herbs should never be used alone to treat pancreatitis, some herbs may be helpful along with conventional medical treatment.

•Green tea (Camellia sinensis) standardized extract, 250 - 500 mg daily. Use caffeine-free products. You may also prepare teas from the leaf of this herb. Green tea has powerful antioxidant properties.
•Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) standardized extract, 400 mg daily, for antioxidant protection.
•Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) standardized extract, 150 - 300 mg one to three times daily, for immune support. Rhodiola is an "adaptogen" and helps the body adapt to various stresses.
•Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) standardized extract, 20 mg three times a day, for inflammation and immune stimulation.
•Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), 150 - 300 mg two to three times daily, for inflammation and for immunity. You may also take a tincture of this mushroom extract, 30 - 60 drops two to three times a day.
•Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) powder, 3 - 6 grams daily in favorite beverage for antioxidant support. Emblica is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used to treat pancreatic disorders. It is a powerful antioxidant and one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C. Animal studies suggest that this herb can be used to prevent pancreatitis.
•Grape seed extract (Vinis vinifera) standardized extract, 100 - 300 mg daily for antioxidant support.
Individual case reports suggest that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) can be effective for preventing and treating pancreatitis. To determine the right regimen, consult a skilled herbalist or licensed and certified practitioner of TCM, and keep all of your health care providers informed of any supplements, herbs, and medications you are taking.

You may be given:

•Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
•Ginger root (Zingiber officinale)
•Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng)
•Peony root (Paeonia officinalis)
•Cinnamon Chinese bark (Cinnamomum verum)
Studies evaluating acupuncture as a treatment for pancreatitis show mixed results. Some case reports say that acupuncture helped relieve pain from pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. But a review of several studies finds mixed evidence that acupuncture and electroacupuncture (small electrical currents applied through acupuncture needles) are effective for pancreatitis.

Prognosis/Possible Complications:
Possible complications of pancreatitis include:

•Infection of the pancreas
•Cyst-like pockets that can become infected, bleed, or rupture
•The failure of several organs (heart, kidney, lungs) and shock due to toxins in the blood
•Type II diabetes
In mild cases of pancreatitis, where only the pancreas is inflamed, the prognosis is excellent. In chronic pancreatitis, recurring attacks tend to become more severe.

Following Up:
Patients with chronic pancreatitis should eat a low-fat diet, abstain from alcohol, and avoid abdominal trauma to prevent acute attacks and further damage. Those with high triglyceride levels should lose weight, exercise, and avoid medications, such as thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, that increase triglyceride levels. Given reports suggesting that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of pancreatitis, and that antioxidant supplementation may be of some benefit, health care providers may begin recommending antioxidant nutrients to their patients with pancreatitis.

Alternative Names:
Pancreas - inflammation of

•Reviewed last on: 8/25/2008
•Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by Ernest B. Hawkins, MS, BSPharm, RPh, Integrative Health Resources, Asheville, NC.
Supporting Research
Bhat KPL, Kosmeder JW 2nd, Pezzuto JM. Biological effects of resveratrol. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001;3(6):1041-64.

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Gimenez R. Beneficial effects of green tea -- a review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(2):79-99.

Diehl DL. Acupuncture for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders. J Altern Complement Med. 1999;5(1):27-45.

McClave SA, Chang WK, Dhaliwal R, et al. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review of the literature. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006 Mar-Apr;30(2):143-56.

Morris-Stiff GJ, Bowrey DJ, Oleesky D, Davies M, Clark GW, Puntis MC. The antioxidant profiles of patients with recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94(8):2135-2140.

Motoo Y, Su SB, Xie MJ, Taga H, Sawabu N. Effect of herbal medicine Saiko-keishi-to (TJ-10) on rat spontaneous chronic pancreatitis. Int J Pancreatol. 2000;27(2):123-129.

Pearce CB, Sadek SA, Walters AM, Goggin PM, Somers SS, Toh SK, Johns T, Duncan HD. A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial to study the effects of an enteral feed supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and omega-3 fatty acid in predicted acute severe pancreatitis. JOP. 2006 Jul 10;7(4):361-71.

Rotsein OD. Oxidants and antioxidant therapy. Crit Care Clin. 2001;17(1):239-47.

Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J MedFood. 2003;6(4):291-9.

Schulz HU, Niederau C, Klonowski-Stumpe H, Halangk W, Luthen R, Lippert H. Oxidative stress in acute pancreatitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999;46(29):2736-2750.

Scolapio JS, Malhi-Chowla N, Ukleja A. Nutrition supplementation in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1999;28(3):695-707.

Shapiro H, Singer P, Halpern Z, Bruck R. Polyphenols in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and acute pancreatitis: the missing ingredient in enteral and parenteral nutrition formulas? Gut. 2006 Aug 24;Epub ahead of print

Thorat SP, Rege NN, Naik AS, et al. Emblica officinalis: a novel therapy for acute pancreatitis -- an experimental study. HPB Surg. 1995;9(1):25-30.

Uden S, Bilton D, Nathan L, et al. Antioxidant therapy for recurrent pancreatitis: a placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1990;4:357-371.

Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine

cited from:

by Mai Tran | Apr 06, 2001

-------------- ABSTRACT:

Eat multiple (five or six) meals per day. Small meals are easier to digest.
Establish regular eating times and not eating around bedtime.
Avoid foods that contain preservatives or artificial coloring.
Monitor weight and eating adequate calories and protein.
A naturopath or nutritional physician may recommend some of the following nutritional supplements to boost a patient's immune function and help fight cancer:

Vitamins and minerals. Vitamins that are of particular benefit to cancer patients include beta-carotene, B-complex vitamins, (especially vitamin B 6, vitamins A, C, D, E and K. The most important minerals are calcium, chromium, copper, iodine, molybdenum, germanium, selenium, tellurium, and zinc. Many of these vitamins and minerals are strong antioxidants. However, patients should not take mega doses of these supplements without first consulting their doctor. Significant adverse or toxic effects may occur at high dosage, which is especially true for minerals. It is prudent to avoid use of antioxidants when undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy since these treatments kill the cancer by producing oxidants. Antioxidants can undermine the effectiveness of treatment.
Other nutritional supplements that may help fight cancer and support the body include essential fatty acids (fish or flaxseed oil), flavonoids, pancreatic enzymes (to help digest foods), hormones such as DHEA, melatonin or phytoestrogens, rice bran, and mushroom extracts. It is best to check with a nutritional physician or other licensed provider when adding these supplements.

Conventional treatment for leukemia is associated with significant side effects. These adverse effects can be reduced with Chinese herbal preparations. Patients should consult an experienced herbalist who will prescribed remedies to treat specific symptoms that are caused by conventional cancer treatments.

Juice therapy may be helpful in patients with cancer. Patients should mix one part of pure juice with one part of water before drinking. Daily consumption of the following juice may be helpful by reducing toxic burden to the liver:

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carrot and beet juice with a touch of radish or dandelion root
grapes, pear, and lemon
carrot, celery, and parsley
carrot, beet, and cucumber juices
There is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of homeopathy in cancer treatment. Because cancer chemotherapy may suppress the body's response to homeopathic treatment, homeopathy may not be effective during chemotherapy. Therefore, patients should wait until after chemotherapy to try this relatively safe alternative treatment.

Acupuncture is the use of needles on the body to stimulate or direct the meridians (channels) of energy flow in the body. Acupuncture has not been shown to have any anticancer effects. However, it is an effective treatment for nausea, a common side effect of chemotherapy and radiation.

Other therapies that may help the leukemia patient include meditation, qigong, yoga, and t'ai chi , all of which can aid in stress reduction. Guided imagery can increase immune function and decrease pain and nausea.

There are two phases of treatment for leukemia. The first phase is called induction therapy. The main aim of the treatment is to reduce the number of leukemic cells as far as possible and induce a remission in the patient. Once the patient shows no obvious signs of leukemia (no leukemic cells are detected in blood tests and bone marrow biopsies), the patient is said to be in remission. The second phase of treatment is then initiated. This is called continuation or maintenance therapy; the aim in this case is to kill any remaining cells and to maintain remission for as long as possible.

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It is usually the treatment of choice and is used to relieve symptoms and achieve long-term remission of the disease. Generally, combination chemotherapy, in which multiple drugs are used, is more efficient than using a single drug for treatment.

Because leukemia cells can spread to all the organs via the blood stream and lymph vessels, surgery is not considered an option for treating leukemias.

Radiation therapy, which involves the use of x rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors, may be used in some cases. For acute leukemias, the source of radiation is usually outside the body (external radiation therapy). If the leukemic cells have spread to the brain, radiation therapy can be given to the brain.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a process in which the patient's diseased bone marrow is replaced with healthy marrow. There are two methods of bone marrow transplant. In an allogeneic bone marrow transplant, healthy marrow is taken from a donor whose tissue is either the same as or very closely resembles the patient's tissue. First, the patient's bone marrow is destroyed with very high doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Healthy marrow from the donor is then given to the patient through a needle in a vein to replace the destroyed marrow.

In the second type of bone marrow transplant, called an autologous bone marrow transplant, some of the patient's own marrow is taken out and treated with a combination of anticancer drugs to kill all abnormal cells. This marrow is then frozen and saved. The marrow remaining in the patient's body is destroyed with high-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The marrow that was frozen is then thawed and given back to the patient through a needle in a vein. This mode of bone marrow transplant is currently being investigated in clinical trials.